42nd Annual Meeting of the Social Science History Association (http://ssha.org/annual-conference)
Montreal, Quebec Canada, November 2-5, 2017
Panel: Circulating practices: Networks and exchange between emerging cities in Europe's Borderlands, 1880-1945
Thursday, November 02: 08:00 AM-10:00 AM
Until now the focus of the research in the case of the cities of Eastern and Southern Europe was mainly migration and institutions of technology transfer (such as universities) suggesting a transfer of knowledge and practices from the center to the periphery. But instead of following this topos of urban history, the proposed panel of the Herder-Institute Germany concentrates on the less researched exchanges of actors, practices and strategies of knowledge between the cities of the European borderlands such as East Europe.
This will be achieved with a special focus on the production and distribution of civic engineering, which played a particularly important role in the modernization of the architectural and infrastructural system of these emerging cities in the late 19th and early 20th century with their fast growing population. Budapest, or Lemberg and Gdansk/Danzig emerged in the interface of national visions and desires and of international processes and influences. Although the metropolises of the age like Paris and London had an enormous impact on the urbanization of these cities, at the same time they have been practical enough to turn to each other for solving social and infrastructural problems emerged due their similar urbanism.
This hypothesis and understanding these cities as “emerging cities”, we would like to analyze trough the comparative perspective and the lenses of the engineering sciences.
Session organizer and chair: Dr. Eszter Gantner
Commentator: Professor Till van Rahden
Dr. Heidi Hein-Kircher (Herder Institute): The challenges of providing healthy living conditions. The Case of Lviv
As the capital city of the poor Habsburgian Crownland Galicia and Lodomeria, local politics in Lviv focused on city development. The challenges laid on the one side on the high mortality rate and the pursuit of being a modern capital city and on the other side on stylizing the city as a Polish city. As the population mainly belonged to the under classes, typical problems of poverty like epidemics challenged the local actors. An extraordinary challenge was the problem of providing the population with healthy and cheap food, because Lviv belonged to the most expensive European cities after 1900. Orientating at best practices all over Europe, the local actors tried to find some solutions for this problem which was threatening the social peace in the city, too.
Dr. Eszter Gantner (Herder Institute): “Between local and global” – The network of a civil engineer at the turn of the 19th and 20th century from East Central Europe
The years between 1873 and 1914 marked the beginning and the end of the most successful era of modernization and urbanization in the history of Budapest. This lecture argues that the urban development was both based on the conscious and strategic adaptation and keeping balance between the local traditions and needs and European trends.
Using Budapest as a case study, this lecture investigates the specific local conditions that gave rise to the transfer, adaptation and use of modern knowledge in the cities of Eastern Central Europe in the 19th century. Doing so, the lecture introduces and analyzes the network of the Budapest based civil engineer and planner Imre Forbát, who was trained in Budapest, Vienna and Zürich, working throughout Europe between 1900 and 1914 transferring best practices and ideas especially in the field of social housing between the various cities such Frankfurt, Berlin, Budapest, Varna and Paris and Manchester.
Máté Tamáska (Hungarian National Archive, Budapest): „Little Vienna-Little Budapest”: Ring Roads and Circles in the Regional Cities of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy (1850-1920)
The European City transformed from closed ensemble into an open urban fabric thanks to the demolishing of city walls. This act offered a unique possibility for creating monumental townscapes, just in close neighbourhoods to historical mediaeval centres. The cities of Habsburg Empire undertook this action relative late, especial the capital Vienna. 1850-1870 the famous urban fabric of the Wiener Ring was created with elegant palaces and public buildings (type: ring road). Some decades later, the second capital of the monarchy, Budapest established a circlet system too, however not with as representative buildings but with a vivid urban life with apartment houses.
The presentation wants to discuss the following question: how did the regional towns of the monarchy like Brno (CZ), Timisoara (RO), Kosice (SK) or Szeged (HU) take / adapted or implemented the patterns from the capitals?
Although these towns created a similar ring or circlet system as the capitals, but the following one or other capital led to the implementation of different urban planning habits: Szeged adapted the patterns of Budapest (“little Budapest”); Brno’s or Timisoara”s rings are definitely the same as in Vienna (“little Vienna”). Kosice followed at first the patterns of Vienna, later oriented itself to Budapest and the planning concept was changed.
Adrian Mitter (University of Toronto/Herder Institute): Danzig - From Emerging City to City-State: Performance of Unwanted Statehood and Germanization of Urban Heritage in a European Borderland
The Treaty of Versailles created multiple new transnational spaces in the European borderlands. The most significant example for this practice was probably the establishment of the Free City of Danzig on the shores of the Baltic Sea between Germany and Poland. The emerging port city of Danzig became a city-state with local autonomy and was supervised by the League of Nations. Available scholarship usually describes the Free City as a place of stagnation, a place of social and economic decline. This bleak picture is only slowly put into question by more recent studies. At a first glance statehood did not change Danzig as an urban landscape. Unlike the builders of the rapidly growing and distinctively modern rival port city of Gdynia, Danzig officials did not initiate any extensive new construction projects. This, however, did not mean that urban development in Danzig stagnated. Statehood created new opportunities for the management and configuration of urban space and enabled local actors to overcome administrative and financial limitations from the center. After World War I immense effort was put into the preservation and renovation of heritage buildings. This heavily politicized practice served to secure the allegedly historical German character of the city, to manifest Danzig’s connection to the German motherland and as a protest against the unwanted statehood. Similarly, transnational aspects of Danzig’s past as a multi-ethnic merchant city and Polish gate to the Baltic were downplayed or entirely erased.
A study of cultural heritage management and urban planning in interwar Danzig reveals how local actors in an emerging city demonstratively refrained from modernization and transnational exchange. Instead they used nationalist sentiments to strengthen local structures and to advance their professional positions.
The 12th Conference on Baltic Studies in Europe (CBSE) aims to reflect on the past, present and future of the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 99 years after their declarations of independence.
Conference Webpage: https://cbse2017.lu.lv
Panel mit Beteiligung des Herder-Instituts: 21.6., 9.00-10.30 Uhr
Chair: Heidi Hein-Kircher (Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe)
Karsten Brüggemann (University of Tallinn) “We finally defeated our historical enemy”. The Battle of Cēsis in June 1919 and the Celebration of Victory Day in Estonia, 1934-1940
Dennis Hormuth (Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe) Daugava – Latvias National Symbol against Heteronomy
Tilman Plath (Ernst Moritz Arndt-University Greifswald) Uncomfortable Heroes – Comparing Thoughts about Latvian Riflemen and SS-Legionnaires in Latvias Culture of Memory 1920-2017
Klaus Richter (University of Birmingham) Historical blueprints in the post-Soviet transformation of the Baltic States
Panels mit Beteiligung des Herder-Instituts:
Friday, 31st of March, 13:45-15:15 SESSION 1
1.8. History: Building and Implementing the Soviet Future
Papers: Antony Kalashnikov (University of Oxford): ‘Building for eternity: the orientation of Stalinist monumental art and architecture towards a future audience’
Polly Corrigan (King’s College): ‘The Soviet security service in the 1930s: a re-examination of domestic activity’
Giovanni Cadioli (University of Oxford): ‘Soviet economic thought and economic policy in the 1940s. Influence on 1950s-1960s reforms.’
Eszter Gantner (Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe): ‘The Soviet in city – Urban visions of the Soviet Republic in Budapest 1919’
Saturday, 1st of April, 16:00-17:30: SESSION 6
6.12. History: Being Peripheral? Being Modern? Urban Perceptions and Self-Perceptions in Eastern Europe before WWI
Chair: Eszter Gantner (Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe)
Papers: Eszter Gantner (Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe): ‘Exhibiting Modernity – The national exhibition in Budapest 1885’
Anna Mazanik (Central European University): ‘Backwardness invented and overcome:Temporalities of urban reforms in Moscow’
Heidi Hein-Kircher (Herder-Institute on East Central Europe): ‘Lviv as the Polish Spare Capital and Bulwark against the East’
Discussant: Heidi Hein-Kircher (Herder-Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe)
Panel mit Beteiligung des Herder-Instituts:
Saturday, March 18th 2017, 10.15–11.45
Postimperial and postrevolutionary visions: The Finno-Ugrian nation states and their imagined geographies after 1918
Chair: Anssi Halmesvirta
Sommer, Lukasz: Political uses of linguistic kinship: Pan-Finno-Ugrist concepts in Finland and Estonia after 1918
Okabe, Takehiro: Greater Finland as a post-empire phenomenon: Making Finno-Ugric Studies national and international in Finland and Soviet Russia
Gantner, Eszter: “Placemaking” and Identity: The emergence of the political Turanism as a transnational vision after 1918
Panel mit Beteiligung des Herder-Instituts:
Samstag, 25. März 2017, 16.30-18.30 Uhr, Sektion 24 (Saal A)
Grenzen der Sicherheit? Praktiken und Diskurse über Staat, Nation und Gesellschaft in der Zweiten Republik
Heidi Hein-Kircher: Einleitung
Natali Stegmann: Sozialpolitische Institutionen im Übergang: Polen in den frühen 1920er Jahren
Heidi Hein-Kircher: Nach der Wiedergeburt. Verpasste Konsolidierung und Versicherheitlichungsdiskurse in der Frühphase der Zweiten Republik
Sebastian Paul: Gefährliche Nachbarschaft? Die ukrainische Minderheit als internationales Sicherheitsproblem
Felix Heinert: Grenzen der Sicherheit vor Ort: Antistaatliche und antijüdische Gewalt sowie die ukrainische Nation als diskursive Argumente im öffentlichen Raum. Am Beispiel der Region Stanisławów in den 1930er Jahren
Panels mit Beteiligung des Herder-Instituts:
The Baltic German Experience: New Perspectives
Chair: Bradley Woodworth (University of New Haven/Yale University)
Viktors Dāboliņš (Museum of the History of Riga and Navigation), “The Making of History: Livonian Coin Collectors from the Late Seventeenth Century to the Mid-Eighteenth Century”
Feliks Gornischeff (University of Tartu), “The Baltic Germans in the Diplomatic Service of the Russian Empire During the Reign of Alexander I (1801-1825)”
Peter Wörster (Herder-Institut, Marburg) “Residential Town Between Königsberg and St. Petersburg: Mitau, the Ducal Court, and Its Aftermath”
Dorothee Goeze (Herder-Institut, Marburg), “Nobility at Home: Heredity and the Task of the Nobility in the Baltic”
Soviet Actions and Institutions of Oppression, Social and Information Control
Chair: Ieva Zake (The College of New Jersey)
Respondent: Melissa Chakars (Saint Joseph’s University)
Edgars Engīzers (Baltic International Academy), “Latvia in the Shadow of Soviet Military Bases”
Rosario Napolitano (Universita degli Studi di Napoli “l’Orientale”), “The KGB Building in Latvia: The Years of Fear”
Jürgen Warmbrunn (Herder-Institut, Marburg), “Libraries and Politics in Latvia, Czechoslovakia and Poland after 1945”
Edward Cohn (Grinnell College), “Prophylactic Policing and the KGB’s Struggle with the Baltic Dissident Movement in the 1970s and 1980s”
Emerging Cities and Their Know-How: Infrastructures of Supply and Communication in Baltic Cities, Late Eighteenth Century to the Present
Chair: Ivars Ījabs (University of Latvia)
Heidi Hein-Kircher (Herder-Institut, Marburg), “Emerging Cities in the Baltic Region Between Best Practices and National Movements”
Eszter Gantner (Herder-Institut, Marburg), “Transferring Best Practices: Eliel Saarinen Between Tallinn, Helsinki and Budapest, 1900-1914”
Emilia Karppinen (University of Turku), “Renegotiating Planning Practices: Mapping Out the Future of Helsinki (1910-1918)”
Vaike Haas (West Virginia University), “Marks on the City: Colonization, Planning, and Coastline Emergence in Tallinn, Estonia”
Panel mit Beteiligung des Herder-Instituts:
The “Double” Transformation. New Perspectives on East Central European Nationalizing and Democratizing States between the Two World Wars
Chair: Steffen Kailitz, Hannah Arendt Institute for Research on Totalitarianism
Through the Lense of Gender and Ethnicity: Highlighting Dynamics of Democratization and Nationalization in the Second Polish Republic.
Angelique Leszczawski-Schwerk, TU Dresden
Bringing Democracy to the Eastern Borderland. The Failed Parliamentary Election of 1920 in Multiethnic Czechoslovak Ruthenia.
Sebastian Paul, Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe
Popular Violence from the War to Postwar Era. Czechoslovakia and Austria in 1918-1922
Ota Konrád, University of Prag
Social Justice and National Diversity: The Case of War Invalids in Poland
Natali Stegman, University of Regensburg
Property Redistribution and Democracy in Poland and the Baltics
Klaus Richter, University of Birmingham
Discussant: Heidi Hein-Kircher, Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe